IMPACT OF IMMUNE STATUS ON NANOMATERIAL BIOCOMPATIBILITY, DRUG DISPOSITION AND INTRACELLULAR PHARMACOLOGY

April 12, 2025

Dysregulation of the immune system is a hallmark of a number of diseases such as HIV. The mechanisms by which the immune system can influence drug disposition are relatively understudied but recent work has highlighted the necessity for examining its impact on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. A more comprehensive approach in clinical studies will allow better determination of the impact of cytokines on drug disposition. In addition, determining the mechanisms that underpin the differential effects of cytokines across different cell types will clarify the responses reported in these studies. This in turn relates to the biocompatibility of nanomaterials in patients with dysregulated immune systems as in HIV infection, specifically when comparing the response of uninfected vs infected cells.

Cytokines etc. are integral to the successful resolution of many diseases. Data are emerging on a role for cytokines in regulation of the expression and activity of drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes. Investigation of the interaction between pharmacological and immunological responses is key to understanding the complex relationships involved in patient response to therapy as well as how they may respond to nanoformulated therapies.